If you answered "indoors," reflect… could you have done it outdoors? Even reading a story, like the "The Story of S.T. Shrew," takes on so many added dimensions, if simply read outdoors.
We teach indoors for lots of reasons. After all, someone built us a building. Indoors feels secure. There are four walls and a ceiling. It never rains, snows, or darkens, and it's always 71 degrees. We have desks, pencils, SmartBoards, and electrical outlets. However, it can get boring.
Intellectually, we're aware of benefits of learning outside the four walls of the classroom. A growing body of research reveals the significance of early experiences with nature as an important factor in developing environmental awareness (Taylor and Kuo, 2006; Orr, 2004). A quick glance at the voluminous research abstracts listed on the Children and Nature network reveals several research studies that glow about how nature, hands-on learning, and authentic experiences can:
With benefits like these, teaching outside should be a "no-brainer." Yet most teachers don't go outside with their students. Why?
Barriers to Teaching Outside
Cynthia C. Gardner from Lander University in South Carolina wrote a paper called "Why Some Teachers are not using the Schoolyard Environment." She had taught at a South Carolina school that had three beautiful designated outdoor teaching areas (a pine forest, a pond, and a wetland), yet observed very few teachers using those spaces. To find out why, Gardner distributed 50 surveys to teachers of kindergarten through grade 5. She received 35 responses. A quick summary of the results:
Teachers were also asked to identify barriers to teaching outside. The barriers fell into five categories:
Only the K-2 teachers cited "supervision of children" and "natural hazards" as barriers. Only grade 3-5 teachers cited "lack of knowledge." Teachers from all grade levels cited the curriculum standards and the daily schedule.
While Gardner's study focuses only on one school in South Carolina, I suspect her results are pretty similar elsewhere. I've worked with hundreds of teachers over the years. I've heard lots of excuses, concerns, and barriers to going outside. I could add a few more barriers to Gardner's list:
Top 10 Tips For Teaching Outside
I also know which teachers consistently take their students outside to learn, and have heard their glorious testimonials on the benefits of nature in academic settings. Intrigued by Gardner's paper, I asked a few Minnesota teachers – one preschool, one elementary, two secondary –to give me their "Top Ten" tips for colleagues who have never taught outside. If you're mentoring in a new teacher or contemplating the outdoors yourself, I share these tips.
Teachers like these exist everywhere. Find one at a local nature center or through your state environmental education organization. For a copy of Dr. Cynthia Gardner's paper, contact firstname.lastname@example.org