Observed Canadian fire danger indexes

Updated 13:00 2017-03-29

**Local agency personnel should contact MIFC Fire Intelligence if errors or omissions are observed.**

Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Agassiz 54 56 1.61 10 42.0 1.0 1.9 0.1 0.9 0.0
Albert Lea 46 71 0.0 17 76.6 3.0 4.6 3.4 2.7 1.6
Badoura 48 52 0.0 4 87.5 9.4 20.8 4.2 9.4 4.3
Baudette 54 41 0.0 5 86.7 8.4 19.0 4.0 8.4 3.9
Bemidji 48 49 0.0 8 85.9 7.7 17.0 4.6 7.6 4.3
Bigstone 55 54 0.0 7 85.2 18.0 46.0 3.8 18.2 5.9
Brainerd 46 56 0.0 8 86.4 13.0 29.5 4.9 12.9 6.1
Camp Ripley/Little Falls 49 58 0.0 6 85.8 11.1 27.3 3.9 11.0 4.4
Carlos Avery 51 52 0.0 6 84.8 9.9 16.4 3.3 9.7 3.4
Cass Lake 47 49 0.0 7 82.8 5.6 6.4 2.8 5.3 1.8
Cutfoot 47 47 0.0 4 87.9 8.7 18.5 4.4 8.6 4.3
Detroit Lakes 55 40 0.0 10 88.1 9.7 19.1 7.4 9.6 7.7
Effie 48 47 0.0 7 85.8 7.6 12.6 4.2 7.4 3.8
Ely 42 54 0.0 12 86.5 7.9 17.5 6.8 7.9 6.5
Fernberg 40 53 0.0 10 86.3 7.7 17.3 5.7 7.7 5.4
Hibbing 43 58 0.0 8 86.0 8.0 18.1 4.6 8.0 4.4
Hill City 45 58 0.0 9 85.7 5.5 11.2 4.8 5.4 3.8
Itasca 53 41 0.0 6 87.1 8.7 8.4 4.6 8.3 4.5
Kelliher 51 42 0.0 6 86.7 8.0 14.5 4.4 7.8 4.1
Kittson 57 46 0.0 8 86.0 9.1 20.7 4.6 9.0 4.8
Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Litchfield 52 54 0.0 10 72.9 4.2 4.2 1.6 3.8 0.6
Littlefork 50 46 0.0 6 86.6 8.3 18.4 4.3 8.3 4.2
Meander USFS 45 48 0.0 5 87.2 8.2 18.0 4.3 8.2 4.2
MN Valley 51 54 0.0 7 86.3 13.8 25.3 4.5 13.7 5.8
Moose Lake 43 67 0.0 8 84.5 5.8 12.3 3.7 5.7 2.9
Mora 46 61 0.0 7 82.7 6.3 14.2 2.8 6.2 2.0
New Ulm Municipal Airport 48 62 0.0 14 82.2 10.3 35.2 4.5 11.9 5.3
Orr 47 46 0.0 9 87.5 8.4 18.3 6.3 8.3 6.1
Redstn 50 79 0.0 8 82.4 14.7 39.6 2.9 15.2 3.9
Rice Lake 45 62 0.0 7 83.4 4.6 8.6 3.0 4.5 1.8
Rochester 44 76 0.01 21 70.3 1.2 4.5 3.4 1.5 1.0
Roseau 58 43 0.0 7 86.8 10.1 21.7 4.8 10.0 5.2
Saginaw 40 68 0.0 6 80.5 5.7 10.2 2.0 5.5 0.9
Sherburne 49 54 0.0 5 82.8 6.0 7.7 2.3 5.7 1.3
Skibo 42 55 0.0 4 86.8 8.2 17.9 3.7 8.1 3.5
Stanton Airfield 48 60 0.0 8 81.2 10.2 30.9 2.5 11.2 2.6
St. Croix 49 49 0.0 3 87.4 11.5 22.5 3.8 11.4 4.4
Voyageurs/Kabnam 47 44 0.0 5 87.2 8.3 18.0 4.3 8.2 4.2

Interpretation

The following chart is a statewide generalized fire danger rating chart for the Canadian Fire Weather Index. It is based on a five class danger rating system, i.e., low, moderate, high, very high , and extreme. The distribution is based on weather records from 1985 - 1998. Low days occurred 45% to 50% of the time, moderate - 30 %, high days - 12% to 15%, very high days occurred 7%-8% of the time, and extreme days were 2%-3%. This is not meant to be used as a staffing guide . Each area needs to look at its own weather data coupled with its fire occurrence data. For instance, if you have a drought code of 380, it does not mean you are in extreme fire danger. It means that the drought code only gets that high on 2% of the days between April 1 and November 1.

Index Low Moderate High Very High Extreme

FFMC

0.0 - 80.9

81.0 - 87.9

88.0 - 90.4

90.5 - 92.4

92.5+

DMC

0.0 - 12.9

13.0 - 27.9

28.0 - 41.9

42.0 - 62.9

63.0+

DC

0.0 - 79.9

80.0 - 209.9

210.0 - 273.9

274.0 - 359.9

360.0+

ISI

0.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 7.9

8.0 - 10.9

11.0 - 18.9

19.0+

BUI

0.0 - 18.9

19.0 - 33.9

34.0 - 53.9

54.0 - 76.9

77.0+

FWI

0.0 - 4.9

5.0 - 13.9

14.0 - 20.9

21.0 - 32.9

33.0+

Definitions

Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

This provides a relative indicator of the moisture in the fine fuels. Like the 1 hour fuel moisture, it reacts directly with the air temperature and relative humidity.

Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

This is an index of the moisture of the loosely compact organic layers at a depth of 2-4 inches.

Drought Code (DC)

This measures long term dryness in the fuels. It is a longer term index than the NFDRS 1000 fuel moisture. It doesn't reflect the probability of fire occurrence by itself, but can be useful in predicting the level of mop up needed and the consumption of large fuels. It should be looked at in relation to peat fire starts.

Initial Spread Index (ISI)

This is based on the FFMC and the wind speed. It provides a relative numerical rating of the expected rate of spread. This is similar to the NFDRS Spread Component.

Buildup Index (BUI)

This index is based on the DC and the DMC. It provides a relative indication of the amount of fuel available for combustion. This is somewhat similar to the NFDRS Energy Release Component. It doesn't predict what a given day might be like, but does relate well to the dryness of the fuels.

Fire Weather Index (FWI)

This combines the BUI and the ISI to give a relative numerical rating of fire intensity. It can be compared to the NFDRS Burning Index.