Observed Canadian fire danger indexes

Updated 12:00 2015-01-26

Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Agassiz 33 95 0.0 15
Badoura 38 74 0.0 11
Baudette 33 81 0.0 9
Bemidji 36 75 0.01 12
Bigstone 45 69 0.0 17
Brainerd 40 77 0.0 11
Camp Ripley/Little Falls 43 70 0.0 8
Carlos Avery 40 74 0.0 8
Cass Lake 38 77 0.0 7
Cutfoot 35 90 0.02 2
Detroit Lakes 38 78 0.0 16
Effie 34 95 0.03 8
Ely 24 83 0.03 4
Fernberg 23 90 0.0 6
Grand Portage 23 12 0.0 7
Hibbing 27 88 0.0 1
Hill City 36 83 0.02 4
Isabella 22 88 0.0 3
Itasca 36 81 0.0 11
Kelliher 35 86 0.0 11
Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Kittson 32 94 0.0 16
Litchfield 40 83 0.02 13
Littlefork 31 90 0.0 10
Meander USFS 25 87 0.0 2
MN Valley 43 71 0.0 10
Moose Lake 31 90 0.0 1
Mora 39 80 0.01 8
Orr 30 93 0.0 4
Redstn 41 92 0.0 16
Rice Lake 36 88 0.02 0
Roseau 32 80 0.01 15
Saginaw 26 91 0.0 3
Sherburne 44 65 0.0 11
St. Croix 31 89 0.0 1
Voyageurs/Kabnam 30 93 0.0 4

Interpretation

The following chart is a statewide generalized fire danger rating chart for the Canadian Fire Weather Index. It is based on a five class danger rating system, i.e., low, moderate, high, very high , and extreme. The distribution is based on weather records from 1985 - 1998. Low days occurred 45% to 50% of the time, moderate - 30 %, high days - 12% to 15%, very high days occurred 7%-8% of the time, and extreme days were 2%-3%. This is not meant to be used as a staffing guide . Each area needs to look at its own weather data coupled with its fire occurrence data. For instance, if you have a drought code of 380, it does not mean you are in extreme fire danger. It means that the drought code only gets that high on 2% of the days between April 1 and November 1.

Index Low Moderate High Very High Extreme

FFMC

0.0 - 80.9

81.0 - 87.9

88.0 - 90.4

90.5 - 92.4

92.5+

DMC

0.0 - 12.9

13.0 - 27.9

28.0 - 41.9

42.0 - 62.9

63.0+

DC

0.0 - 79.9

80.0 - 209.9

210.0 - 273.9

274.0 - 359.9

360.0+

ISI

0.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 7.9

8.0 - 10.9

11.0 - 18.9

19.0+

BUI

0.0 - 18.9

19.0 - 33.9

34.0 - 53.9

54.0 - 76.9

77.0+

FWI

0.0 - 4.9

5.0 - 13.9

14.0 - 20.9

21.0 - 32.9

33.0+

Definitions

Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

This provides a relative indicator of the moisture in the fine fuels. Like the 1 hour fuel moisture, it reacts directly with the air temperature and relative humidity.

Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

This is an index of the moisture of the loosely compact organic layers at a depth of 2-4 inches.

Drought Code (DC)

This measures long term dryness in the fuels. It is a longer term index than the NFDRS 1000 fuel moisture. It doesn't reflect the probability of fire occurrence by itself, but can be useful in predicting the level of mop up needed and the consumption of large fuels. It should be looked at in relation to peat fire starts.

Initial Spread Index (ISI)

This is based on the FFMC and the wind speed. It provides a relative numerical rating of the expected rate of spread. This is similar to the NFDRS Spread Component.

Buildup Index (BUI)

This index is based on the DC and the DMC. It provides a relative indication of the amount of fuel available for combustion. This is somewhat similar to the NFDRS Energy Release Component. It doesn't predict what a given day might be like, but does relate well to the dryness of the fuels.

Fire Weather Index (FWI)

This combines the BUI and the ISI to give a relative numerical rating of fire intensity. It can be compared to the NFDRS Burning Index.