Observed Canadian fire danger indexes

Updated 13:00 2014-09-30

Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Agassiz 57 63 0.0 11 69.4 13.0 285.5 1.5 23.3 2.4
Badoura 52 67 0.0 9 73.3 25.1 343.4 1.5 42.5 3.9
Baudette 54 64 0.0 7 62.3 7.9 215.4 0.8 14.4 0.6
Bemidji 51 66 0.0 15 71.0 17.3 262.6 2.2 29.7 4.6
Bigstone 49 84 0.0 13 81.9 23.2 193.7 4.0 35.7 9.1
Brainerd 51 74 0.0 12 63.3 17.0 114.7 1.3 24.9 2.1
Camp Ripley/Little Falls 52 69 0.0 11 68.0 19.4 106.4 1.4 26.6 2.6
Carlos Avery 53 67 0.0 7 85.0 31.7 226.0 3.7 46.9 10.1
Cass Lake 52 66 0.0 9 69.8 20.6 361.2 1.3 36.1 2.9
Cutfoot 54 63 0.0 3 69.2 20.1 354.7 0.8 35.2 1.2
Detroit Lakes 55 62 0.0 14 80.6 27.5 306.1 3.8 45.0 9.9
Effie 51 69 0.0 9 69.4 15.6 282.4 1.3 27.5 2.2
Ely 51 67 0.0 9 66.7 18.7 252.8 1.2 31.5 2.2
Fernberg 53 63 0.0 10 60.4 13.5 242.0 0.9 23.8 1.0
Grand Portage 50 65 0.0 8 63.6 10.2 183.2 1.0 17.9 0.8
Hibbing 50 72 0.0 12 67.9 15.2 277.1 1.5 26.7 2.8
Hill City 54 66 0.0 4 60.4 14.2 266.1 0.6 25.1 0.6
Isabella 45 80 0.01 6 49.4 12.7 202.1 0.2 21.9 0.2
Itasca 54 62 0.0 9 71.5 22.8 329.7 1.4 38.9 3.3
Kelliher 54 65 0.0 10 72.3 13.3 239.5 1.5 23.4 2.5
Station °F RH P24I Wind FFMC DMC DC ISI BUI FWI
Kittson 56 64 0.01 12 62.2 10.4 281.7 1.2 19.1 1.4
Litchfield 52 69 0.0 15 83.9 22.4 230.5 6.2 36.0 13.0
Littlefork 51 69 0.0 8 63.8 11.2 260.1 1.0 20.3 0.9
Meander USFS 51 69 0.0 7 59.1 12.7 345.0 0.7 23.3 0.7
MN Valley 53 69 0.0 7 81.7 25.8 363.2 2.4 43.8 6.6
Moose Lake 52 68 0.0 9 63.3 13.8 197.7 1.0 23.5 1.1
Mora 49 77 0.0 9 64.6 16.6 86.4 1.1 22.5 1.2
Orr 50 69 0.0 9 64.1 16.6 360.1 1.1 29.8 1.8
Redstn 59 90 0.04 8 74.6 32.2 326.9 1.4 51.7 4.4
Rice Lake 48 76 0.0 9 65.0 16.7 101.0 1.1 23.7 1.4
Roseau 55 69 0.0 14 64.4 9.2 320.2 1.6 17.1 2.0
Saginaw 47 77 0.0 12 55.9 12.0 214.9 0.8 21.0 0.7
Seagull Lake 58 52 0.0 9 66.8 12.2 188.3 1.2 21.0 1.4
Sherburne 53 66 0.0 9 80.2 31.7 160.0 2.4 42.4 6.4
St. Croix 52 66 0.0 6 69.5 18.5 86.8 1.0 24.2 1.2
Voyageurs/Kabnam 48 76 0.0 5 52.5 9.5 230.1 0.3 17.3 0.3

Interpretation

The following chart is a statewide generalized fire danger rating chart for the Canadian Fire Weather Index. It is based on a five class danger rating system, i.e., low, moderate, high, very high , and extreme. The distribution is based on weather records from 1985 - 1998. Low days occurred 45% to 50% of the time, moderate - 30 %, high days - 12% to 15%, very high days occurred 7%-8% of the time, and extreme days were 2%-3%. This is not meant to be used as a staffing guide . Each area needs to look at its own weather data coupled with its fire occurrence data. For instance, if you have a drought code of 380, it does not mean you are in extreme fire danger. It means that the drought code only gets that high on 2% of the days between April 1 and November 1.

Index Low Moderate High Very High Extreme

FFMC

0.0 - 80.9

81.0 - 87.9

88.0 - 90.4

90.5 - 92.4

92.5+

DMC

0.0 - 12.9

13.0 - 27.9

28.0 - 41.9

42.0 - 62.9

63.0+

DC

0.0 - 79.9

80.0 - 209.9

210.0 - 273.9

274.0 - 359.9

360.0+

ISI

0.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 7.9

8.0 - 10.9

11.0 - 18.9

19.0+

BUI

0.0 - 18.9

19.0 - 33.9

34.0 - 53.9

54.0 - 76.9

77.0+

FWI

0.0 - 4.9

5.0 - 13.9

14.0 - 20.9

21.0 - 32.9

33.0+

Definitions

Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC)

This provides a relative indicator of the moisture in the fine fuels. Like the 1 hour fuel moisture, it reacts directly with the air temperature and relative humidity.

Duff Moisture Code (DMC)

This is an index of the moisture of the loosely compact organic layers at a depth of 2-4 inches.

Drought Code (DC)

This measures long term dryness in the fuels. It is a longer term index than the NFDRS 1000 fuel moisture. It doesn't reflect the probability of fire occurrence by itself, but can be useful in predicting the level of mop up needed and the consumption of large fuels. It should be looked at in relation to peat fire starts.

Initial Spread Index (ISI)

This is based on the FFMC and the wind speed. It provides a relative numerical rating of the expected rate of spread. This is similar to the NFDRS Spread Component.

Buildup Index (BUI)

This index is based on the DC and the DMC. It provides a relative indication of the amount of fuel available for combustion. This is somewhat similar to the NFDRS Energy Release Component. It doesn't predict what a given day might be like, but does relate well to the dryness of the fuels.

Fire Weather Index (FWI)

This combines the BUI and the ISI to give a relative numerical rating of fire intensity. It can be compared to the NFDRS Burning Index.